Meat Beat Manifesto PhotoFORMED: 1987, London, England

Beginning in 1987 as an experimental/industrial duo inspired by the cut-and-paste attitudes of hip-hop and dub, Meat Beat Manifesto increasingly became a vehicle for its frontman Jack Dangers to explore the emerging electronics of techno, trip-hop and jungle. Though the group was initially pegged as an industrial act (simply appearing on Wax Trax! Records was enough to do the trick), their approach to studio recordings influenced many in the new-electronica community during the 1990s, even while Dangers remained a superb producer working in much the same way.

Born John Corrigan in 1967 in Swindon, England, Dangers played with Jonny Stephens in the pop band Perennial Divide in the mid-'80s. The two formed Meat Beat Manifesto in 1987 initially as a side-project, and released the singles "I Got the Fear" and "Strap Down" that year. The dense, danceable material surprised many critics used to the duo's previous work, and the singles received good reviews.

Dangers and Stephens left Perennial Divide by 1988 and recorded an album that same year -- using a touring group of up to 13 members for occasional live shows. The tapes were damaged in a fire, so the two recorded Storm the Studio a year later. Just as dense and sample-heavy as the first singles, Storm the Studio included four songs but added three remixes of each -- no need to explain the title -- encompassing high-energy dub, hip-hop and noise-rock. With an American deal through Wax Trax!, Meat Beat Manifesto became known in the U.S. as an industrial band, though Dangers and Stephens felt themselves pigeonholed.

The duo moved to the U.S. soon after, and formed a rough political collective with the members of Consolidated and the Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy. (Jack Dangers and Consolidated's Mark Pistel co-produced early Disposable Heroes material.) Meat Beat Manifesto, meanwhile, continued their audio terrorism on 99%, a 1990 album that added some jazzy rhythms to the collage of noise. That same year, Wax Trax! recycled the remaining tapes from the aborted first album and released them as Armed Audio Warfare.

When Dangers and Stephens signed away from Wax Trax! to the major label Elektra in 1992, the duo finally shook the industrial tag that had stuck with them before. Instead, the media christened the follow-up Satyricon a techno album, due to both the duo's tour of the U.S. with Orbital and Ultramarine, and the album's groove-heavy update of old synth groups such as Depeche Mode. Dangers' early material began to be name-checked as at least a partial motivation for the drum 'n bass movement -- due to the studio mechanics inherent in the music. The 1996 double-album Subliminal Sandwich increased Dangers' devotion to the experimental side of electronica. Actual Sounds and Voices followed in 1998.

Dangers has also contributed to the Tino's Breaks series of records (released on the Tino Corp. label he co-owns with Ben Stokes (aka DHS)) and released two solo albums: 2001's Hello Friends! and 2002's Variaciones Espectrales. ~ John Bush, All Music Guide